Improve your results on this bodyweight exercise by mastering new variations.
Jeremy Duvall for Muscle & Fitness 1 / 6
Good Form=Great Gains
In terms of bodyweight exercises, very little beats the pullup. Grabbing a bar and performing a few reps is enough to impress almost any of your friends. But while most guys can do a few pullups, building your numbers into a large set can be extremely difficult. The pullup requires a unique combination of relative strength (strength in relation to your bodyweight) along with core and grip strength. Absolute strength—the ability to hoist an impressive overall weight—matters less if you can’t control your own body.
A few small errors in technique can make an exercise much harder than it should be. Fix your form and you’re on the way to new records. To further elevate your numbers, your program should include variety to challenge the same movement in a different way multiple times throughout the week.
FIRST, FIX YOUR PULLUP FORM Pullups are all about efficiency. You want to be moving the shortest distance possible to make each rep smooth and effective. The majority of guys mess up along the way, increasing the difficulty of the exercise and leading to potential injury down the road. There are two main points during the move to focus on form and improve technique.
The Set-up: As you hang from the bar, engage your core and point your feet straight down. Your stomach should be pulled in and your hips should be level. Avoid the urge to bend your knees behind you as this breaks form and leads to weakness during the pulling motion.
The Motion: Avoid the urge to push yourself away from the bar and move your torso in a circular fashion. Your goal should be to pull yourself straight up towards the bar, driving your elbows towards your sides. Moving in a circular fashion may make the exercise easier, but it also puts your shoulder at an increased risk of injury.
Even with the best form, performing the same variation day after day leads to boredom and plateaus. To boost your numbers and build up your strength, try mastering the following five pullup variations.
This variation makes use of different grips to decrease the difficulty of the exercise as the set goes on, allowing you to perform more reps. Start with a wide grip to focus most of the work on the lats. Perform as many reps as possible. When you’re tired, move to a parallel grip, which engages more of the biceps, and perform a few more reps. Lastly, move to an underhand chin-up grip to finish off your lats and biceps.
Range of motion is a prime method to increase the difficulty of an exercise. This variation uses both full range and partial range of motion to fatigue your entire back. Start by performing a typical pullup starting from a dead hang and finishing with your chin over the bar. As you lower back down, stop once your elbows reach 90 degrees and pull yourself back up over the bar. Lower all the way down. That’s one rep.
Using assistance on this impressive variation helps you improve strength while still preserving form. In terms of assistance, there are two main options. The first option is to use a band to help yourself out. Attach a resistance band to the bar. Place your resting hand on the band while you grab the bar with the other arm. As you pull up, pull down on the band with the other hand to help yourself up. As you get stronger, use a lighter band to get less help.
The other method is to lock your helping hand around your wrist. As you pull up, you can pull down on your wrist to give yourself a boost.
Building up eccentric strength (think lowering a weight under control) is imperative for increasing your pullup numbers. Eccentric exercises put a greater strain on your muscle, meaning they spur more growth and adaptation. Start this variation by performing a standard pullup, getting your chin over the bar. Focus on lowering your body as slowly as possible. Aim for at least five seconds on the way down. Pull yourself back up and repeat. If you find you’re getting too fatigued to pull yourself up, resort to jumping from a box or step to get your chin over the bar and continue to lower under control.
Using the same grip over and over gets monotonous and leads to a plateau. Use this variation to build your forearm and grip strength. Start with an overhand grip slightly wider than shoulder width apart. Perform a pullup as usual. At the top of the motion, change one hand to an underhand grip so your hands are alternating. Lower slowly then pull yourself back up to the bar. Move your other hand to an underhand grip so you’re in a chin-up position. Repeat changing your grips each rep until fatigued.